A row of football helmets with Shield-X decals applied to them.

Concussions and
Protective Headgear

Most helmet testing standards only consider compression1. These standards protect users from traumatic brain injuries and skull fractures, but not concussions. Sharp twisting of the brain is known to be a key factor behind the severity of concussions2, 3. Shield-X™ aims to mitigate this sharp twisting4.

The science behind concussions in sports is still in its early stages, and the role that any helmet can play in protecting players from concussions is still not entirely clear5.

There are many factors that relate to concussions and head injuries; protective equipment is only one of these. Age, sex, weight, a player's strength, location and direction of impact, whether or not it was anticipated, and previous head trauma are also contributing factors6-10.

Like any protective technology, Shield-X™ alone cannot prevent concussions. Instead, our goal is to help reduce the forces experienced by the head during an impact.

  1. Whyte, T. et al., 2019. A Review of Impact Testing Methods for Headgear in Sports: Considerations for Improved Prevention of Head Injury Through Research and Standards. Journal of Biomechanical Engineering, 141(7).
  2. Holburn, A. H. S., Edin, M. A. & Oxfd, D. P., 1943. Mechanics of Head Injuries. The Lancet, Volume 242, pp. 438-441.
  3. Kleiven, S., 2013. Why Most Traumatic Brain Injuries are Not Caused by Linear Acceleration but Skull Fractures are. Frontiers in Bioengineering and Biotechnology, Volume 1, pp. 1-5.
  4. Abram, D. E., Wikarna, A., Golnaraghi, F. & Wang, G., 2020. A Modular Impact Diverting Mechanism for Football Helmets. Journal of Biomechanics.
  5. Sharp, D. J. & Jenkins, P. O., 2015. Concussion is confusing us all. Pract Neurol, Volume 15, pp. 172-186.
  6. Gennarelli, T. A. et al., 1982. Diffuse Axonal Injury and Traumatic Coma in the Primate. Annals of Neurology, 12(6), pp. 564-574.
  7. Gennarelli, T. et al., 1987. Directional dependence of axonal brain injury due to centroidal and non-centroidal acceleration. SAE Technical Paper 872197.
  8. Iverson, G. L., Gaetz, M., Lovell, M. R. & Collins, M. W., 2004. Cumulative Effects of Concussion in Amateur Athletes. Brain Injury, 18(5).
  9. Albrecht, J. S. et al., 2016. Increased Rates of Mild Traumatic Brain Injury Among Older Adults in US Emergency Departments, 2009-2010. J Head Trauma Rehabil, 31(5), pp. E1-7.
  10. Mollayeva, T., El-Khecken-Richandi, G. & Colantonio, A., 2018. Sex & Gender Considerations in Concussion Research. Concussion, 3(1), p. CNC51.